Singer Umm Kulthum
All the Love
Al-Farabi (Alpharabius) (ca.872 - ca.950 AD)
A scientist-philosopher of the Islamic Golden Age, who wrote kitāb al-mūsīqī al-kabīr ("The Great Book Of Music"); though this is taken to be a root source of Arabic music, it was actually a summary of Persian music--showing the mixture of styles.
Omar Khayyám (1048–1131AD)
Persian Mathematician and Poet-Musician, who wrote a treatises on a number of subjects, including music.
See also here.
Arabic Maqam ("Maqam" in Arabic means "place, location or rank"--it is a type of melody, determined by a certain array of notes, a certain scale.)
The "Nuetral Second"
Rhythm in Arabian Music
Pitch-Ratios for the different kind of seconds:
6:7 Augmented Second
8:9 or 9:10 Major Second
10:11 or 11:12 "Neutral" Second (sounds rather similar to a minor second)
15:16 Minor Second
- General Information about Byzantine Music on Wikipedia
- Greek Orthodox Archdiocesan School of Byzantine Music (including a performance video--the music starts at the 17 minute mark)
- Site about Byzantine Music by Musicologist Ioannis Spyrakis -- including information about Byzantine Notation
- Liturgica.com on Byzantine Chant (plays sample chant music on arrival)
- From the Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia on Byzantine Music
- More information on Byzantine Music Notation
The Hurrian Hymn to Nikkal
Michael Levy on Lyre (recent performance)
Michael Levy on Lyre (older performance)
Wolfgang Schweizer's elaboration of Michael Levy's version
An incredibly slow performance of the melody on lyre
Overall information on the Hymn to Nikal
An overview with synthesizer recordings of 3 versions of the hymn
Version by Anne Kilmer (no audio at this site)
Version by M. Duchesne Guillemin
Version by Joe Monzo
Version for Native American Flute by Clint Goss (sheet music only here)
Here is the cuneiform tablet on which the Hymn was inscribed:
The Desert Vista
Part of a 15th century ceramic panel from Samarkand with white calligraphy on a blue arabesque background.
Fine architectural detail at the Alhambra Palace in Southern Spain.
Detail from a palace in Fatehpur Sikri, India.
Jame Mosque of Qazvin. 9th century. Iran
Graphic arabesque tile ornament, Topkapi Palace, Istanbul
Bibi-Khanym Mosque, Uzbekistan
Iwan (a rectangular hall or space, usually vaulted, walled on three sides, with one end entirely open) in front of the main space of the imam khomeini mosque.
Arabesque of Medina Azahara in Cordoba, Spain.
Another arabesque of Medina Azahara in Cordoba, Spain.
Here is an excellent website about Islamic Art.