Roman Music & Christian Music

Discussion of early Christian suppression of pagan sources may be found here. This film is also highly recommended:

Key figures in the development of the Christian worldview, emotions, and spiritual/musical ideal: Pythagoras depicted on a Greek coin from ancient times:

Plato and Aristotle in Raphael's "School of Athens"

Christ on the Cross by Rembrandt:

Augustine in a 6th century AD depiction:

Gregory is depicted as taking divine musical dictation from a dove singing to him:

A Gothic Cathedral:

What was the Gothic Period?

Examples and Resources

The Carolingian Renaissance

Boethius (ca. 500 AD)
Charlemagne (ca. 800 AD)
Musica enchiriadis ("Handbook of Music" -- 9th Century AD)
Guido of Arezzo (ca. 1000 AD)

The Emperor Charlemagne, crowned in 800 AD:

The Development of Music Notation

approximately 800-900 AD--post-Charlemagne notation (called "neumatic notation" from the ancient Greek "pneuma," breath or spirit):

around 900 AD-- "Daseian notation" after the Greek daseia, "aspirate" or "rough breathing" at the start of a word in spoken prosody:

around 1000 AD--Guidonian Notation:


Simplified version of the Medieval "Guidonian Hand":


Read more here.